Health Campaign

Published: 2021-09-02 05:35:08
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Category: Obesity, Disease, Epidemiology

Type of paper: Essay

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Health Campaign- Part One HCS 535 July 23, 2012 Dr. Beth Hale Health Campaign- Part One Obesity is a chronic condition that has grown in epidemic proportions over the years. Obesity is defined as the body weight which is excessive than expected in healthy individuals and presently in the United States, obesity has become of the greatest public health challenges. It is reported that 2. 8 million adults will die in the world because of obesity (World Health Organization, 2012).
This paper will present obesity and the initiative of Healthy People 2020 to combat this health issue. It will present the federal, state, and local agencies tasked with addressing and managing this issue. It will present models used to determine and analyze obesity, define the community and targeted populations and describe the epidemiologic surveillance systems used for monitoring obesity. It will present epidemiology tools, such as risk assessment and trends in disease and health to analyze obesity. Obesity in America
In the United States obesity rates have escalated to higher levels than ever seen before. At this time one-third of all adults in the United States are classified as obese (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). The national identified health objectives developed by the federal government is Healthy People. These initiatives began in 2000 and were updated in 2010 and 2020. Healthy People 2000 were developed in 1990 by the Department of Human and Health Services as a strategy to improve the health of Americans (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2009).



The first two priority areas identified were physical fitness and nutrition. The Healthy People objectives were rereleased in 2010 with additional priority objectives. The goals of this objectives was similar to the one in 2000 but truly focusing on reducing health disparities and to increase the quality and years of healthy life (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). This national program was updated again to reflect the next decade called Healthy People 2020 and to promote avoiding preventable disease as the focus.
According to Department of Human and Health Services (2010), “Healthy People 2020 is the product of an extensive stakeholder feedback process that is unparalleled in government and health. It integrates input from public health and prevention experts, a wide range of federal, state and local government officials, a consortium of more than 2,000 organizations, and perhaps most importantly, the public” (para. 7). Healthy People 2020 are a federally developed project to improve the health of all Americans. There were many lead federal agencies involved in the development of the framework of Healthy People 2020.
These agencies vary from the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institute of Health, to name a few. These agencies worked together with the Department of Human and Health Services to develop the national program of Healthy People 2020. They also sought out public support and comments to ensure they have the views and had met the needs of the public. The Department of Human and Health Services have state level departments who address and manage the issue of obesity at that level.
They promote and meet the objectives of Healthy People 2020 and according to Department of Human and Health Services (2012), “The Healthy People State and Territorial Coordinators make Healthy People happen every single day across the United States. Each state and territory has a Healthy People Coordinator who serves as a liaison with the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). These coordinators ensure that the development of a state or territorial plan is in line with Healthy People goals and objectives” (p. 2). There are many local agencies and schools who have registered to be part of the Healthy People program.
Determinants of Health What makes an individual unhealthy or obese is a question often asked. When reviewing models and systems to determine or analyze obesity there is an opportunity to review the determinants of health. According to Department of Human and Health Services (2012), “The ranges of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status are known as determinants of health” (p. 2). There are many determinants of health such as policymaking, social, physical, individual behavior, and genetics.
These determinants of health altogether work to determine ones individual and population health (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012). Policy making is “policies at the local, State, and Federal level affect individual and population health” (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012, p. 2). This can deter and improve obesity by taxing unhealthy foods or providing tax cuts for those who eat healthier. A social determinant of health looks at social factors in the environment that impacts the individuals’ health (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012).
An individual social norm may be to eat out at restaurants with friends instead of cooking at home or not able to afford healthy groceries. Physical determinants of health are captured by looking at physical barriers to eating healthy or exercising. An individual may not be living in a safe environment to exercise or go for walks. Individual behaviors include diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption or drug use (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012). These directly affect one’s individual health outcomes and play a huge role in obesity.
Genetic social determinant of health affects some more than others; examples include family history of disease, age, sex, and inherited conditions (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012). Obesity is generally seen in families and not only affects the individual but also the children as well. Living a sedentary lifestyle is generally passed down in families. Data Systems There are many data components captured to determine and analyze obesity through data and vital statistics and disease registries. There are many data indicators to measure the objectives and to determine the priority objectives.
The Healthy People relies on data sources to track progress, such as National Vital Statistics System and National Health Interview Survey. The National Vital Statistics Systems (NVSS) “is the oldest and most successful example of inter-governmental data sharing in Public Health and the shared relationships, standards, and procedures form the mechanism by which National Centre for Health Statistics collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics” (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2012, p. 1). Birth, deaths, marriages and divorce is collected through the NVSS.
The National Health Interview Survey is a tool used by the United States Census Bureau to collect information to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). The data is collected by personal interviews with American households. “The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have provided a continuous monitoring of prevalence and incidence of obesity in a nationally representative sample of individuals” (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2012, p. 3).
Disease registries are collected by private agencies, such as National Institute of Health to collect data on chronic illnesses such as obesity. Many organizations will track body mass index on their employees for the wellness screenings. There are many resources available to determine and analyze obesity and are available on the Internet to review. Healthy People 2020 – Nutrition and Weight Status The Healthy People 2020 objective to reduce obesity in the United States “reflects strong science supporting the health benefits of eating a healthful diet and maintaining a healthy body weight.
The objectives also emphasize that efforts to change diet and weight should address individual behaviors, as well as the policies and environments that support these behaviors in settings such as schools, worksites, health care organizations, and communities”( (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012, p. 2). The community addressed includes the general population of the United States. The data shows that obesity is found in 34% of the American population (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012).
Obesity is more prominent in 20-year or over with disabilities, 25 years or over with some college or associate degree, publicly insured ; 65 years of age, 20 years or over who are divorced or separated, and more seen in the age range of 45-64 years (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012). It appears females have a higher rate of obesity than males, black or African American individuals have the highest rate of obesity and with Hipics not far behind.
Americans who have a chronic condition generally have a higher rate of obesity than Americans without chronic disease, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and arthritis (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012). Individuals born in the United States have a higher incidence of obesity than individuals born in another country (Department of Human and Health Services, 2012). Surveillance Systems The epidemiology surveillance systems used to monitor obesity is done by tracking an individual’s body mass index, skinfold measurements, body circumference, and height and weight.
The body mass index takes the height and weight and compares to other like genders and references. There are many epidemiology tools within health care to address obesity. Many individuals track their dietary intake such as myfitnesspal. com. Assessments such as increase in blood pressure are an indicator of a risk for obesity if there has been an increase in weight gain. Wellness screenings offered in health care organization is another tool to address obesity, it allows the population to access health care professionals on topics such as diet, diabetes, have their body mass index taken.
There is a huge trend to be physical active and eat healthy foods with Michelle Obama partnering with A Healthier America and promoting healthy lifestyles and eating. Conclusion Obesity in America has grown in epidemic proportions over the years and presently one-third of the country is classified as obese. Obesity leads to many other diseases and chronic conditions that will be very costly to the health care system. The federal, state, and local agencies are working diligently to promote Healthy People and provide tools to the public to fight obesity.
Individuals need to start exercising, eating healthy, and develop healthy lifestyles to live a longer healthier life. References Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2009, Fall). Healthy people 2000. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2000. htm Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, Spring). Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/obesity/data/adult. html/ Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). The National Vital Statistics System. Retrieved from http://www. dc. gov/nchs/nvss. htm Department of Human and Health Services. (2010). HHS announces the nation’s new health promotion and disease prevention agenda. Retrieved from http://www. healthypeople. gov/2020/about/DefaultPressRelease. pdf Department of Human and Health Services. (2012). HealthyPeople. Gov. Retrieved from http://www. healthypeople. gov/2020/default. aspx World Health Organization. (2012). Obesity and overweight. Retrieved from http://www. who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index. html

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